Cosmic Wisdom of the Ancients
Secrets of the Great Pyramids

Posted by Just-Think on August 13, 2009 at ATS Post ID 6905318

Zorgon, did you ever read that .pdf file I've send u a while ago ? This is exactly what is was about including the scans... 

Since the completion of the survey, and the report, the Polish team has asked for permission to excavate at the Gizeh plateau in those areas where the ground scans have revealed cavities. So far, these proposals have been rejected.

Maybe you will find these interesting as well, same people think they have found the Hall of Records in the Labyrinth in Hawara...

Geophysical Studies of Hawara Pyramid Area - Faiyum - National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics prepared by Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity Dept. - April 2008
Geophysical Studies of Hawara Pyramid Area - Conclusions

Uncovering the Pyramids Plateau - Giza Plateau in a Search for Archaeological Relics by Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

NRIAG Journal of Geophysics, Special Issue, PP. 1 ? 16, (2006)

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt
Abbas Mohamed Abbas*, El-said A. El-Sayed*, 
Fathy A. Shaaban* and Tarek Abdel-Hafez* 


The Pyramids-Giza plateau still has a universe of unrevealed secrets. The eons passed since the building of the Pyramids, makes this area unique. These huge structures reflect the passion and the discipline of the old Egyptians. The size and effort involved, makes one question: Is that all? Is there still more hidden and
unrevealed? The answers to these questions can be easily achieved using scientific approaches. One of the most powerful techniques available nowadays is the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) geophysical technique. GPR is a fast, cheap and nondestructive inspecting technology. The strength of this technique is its capability to delineate clearly any anomalous feature (wall, pipe, cave etc) within the subsurface soil. So, the implementation of this technique for archaeological inspection is significant and timely.

In the present work, the GPR technique has been applied to selected areas over the Pyramids plateau. As most of the previous work done in this area was so shallow, the present work has been planned using a multi-frequency antenna with a chosen frequency of 16 MHz . This frequency allows for greater depth penetration and therefore, the possibility of locating any possible deeper targets. The following interpretations of the collected GPR profiles show some interesting features which are probably a location for archaeological relics in two areas:

  1. close to the southern side of the first Pyramid (Khufu) and;
  2. around the causeway of the second Pyramid (Khafre).
Some other features of less mass have been delineated close to the eastern side of the second Pyramid and close to the entrance door to the northern side of the Sphinx.


The  possibility  of  hidden  archaeological  remains  at  the  Pyramids plateau of Giza has never been dismissed or discounted. Wide groups of archaeologists, Egyptologist and scientists still believe in the probability of new discoveries under the sands. This possibility can be made fact by applying the powerful geophysical GPR approach.

Early in 1975 Bevan and Kenyon were raising the use of GPR for historical archaeology. Then, in 1977, Kenyon discussed the prospect to apply the GPR survey on historical archaeological site. Later, the GPR measurements became an essential tool in archaeological inspection. Heimmer and De Vore (1995), Goodman (1994), Clark (1996), Lawrence and Goodman (1997) have utilized the GPR technique in archaeological studies. On the Pyramids plateau the geophysical techniques have been applied on many occasions. A study carried out by Yoshimura and Tonauchi (1987) using the, GPR and gravimetery were designed to answer three questions: the inner structure of the Cheop's Pyramid, the constitution of the Sphinx and to determine the age/era during which the Sphinx was carved. Another geophysical work had been done by Dobecki and Schoch (1992). They conducted seismic surveys including seismic refraction tomography and high resolution reflection. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze the depth and distribution of weathering in the exposed limestone bedrock, to search for voids and cavities around and under the Sphinx and to describe the bedrock configuration buried by
sands in the adjacent desert areas.

Abbas (1998) studied the best way for the restoration of the Sphinx and its protection against the groundwater invasion. Using geophysical survey, Mesbah (2005) studied from a geotechnical point of view whether the Pyramids plateau was a good option to set up such huge structures. In our present study, the GPR have been anticipated to be employed as a means to investigate deep-wide parts of the plateau to reveal any hidden
shafts or tunnels through out the studied sectors. Subsurface Imaging Radar device (SIR 2000) from Geophysical Survey System Inc. (GSSI) Company has been used in the survey which was conducted in Feb. 2006. Unshielded multi-frequency antennae (80 - 16 MHz) have been used in continuous mode for the survey. 

The studied areas are distributed over the Pyramids plateau to ensure coverage of selected key zones. The results of the survey support the possibility of the presence of undisclosed relics, of high value.


The worldwide interest in the Pyramids area is well known. Some people still believe in the power of the Pharaohs and their mysteries. The authors have pursued this universal interest. The opinions of specialist
(Egyptologists) were a fundamental issue in this study. Most of our discussions with the Egyptologists have lead to one common point of agreement: that the probability of new findings at the Pyramids plateau is rather high.
The previous works in the area were mainly focused on shallow depths. Consequently, we have directed our strategy in the present study at a slightly deeper depth. As we were planning to cover several zones of the plateau, we desired a powerful, reliable and fast survey technique. Accordingly, the utilization of GPR with low frequency antenna was consistent with our goals.


Archaeologists accompanying our team during the exploration excursion guide us to where the possibility of finding new exploration was most likely based on their experience and background. A total of nine surveyed zones have been distributed along the Pyramids plateau (Fig. 1). In zone (1) which is to the southern side of Khufu Pyramid (Fig. 1), two parallel profiles 2 m apart were done (P26 and P27) . The two profiles are both 115 m long. Profile P26 measured from west to east, while P27 measured from east to west (Fig. 2a). Zone (2) is placed to the eastern side of Khafre Pyramid (Fig.1). The two profiles P24 and P25 are 210 m long. Profile P24 carried out from east to west while, Profile P25 was carried out from west to east. The Profile P25 is 10 m apart from the Khafre Pyramids? base. The profile P25 is 2 m apart from profile P24. The presence of an existing excavation determined our plan to perform a detailed study at zone (3). In this zone which lies between the first Pyramid and the causeway, a grid of 60x60 m has been surveyed with 1 m offset between the profiles (Fig. 2d).


Between  the  eastern  side  of  the  second Pyramid  and  the  causeway,  four profiles (P10-P13) have been conducted in zone 4 from south to the  east  direction  (Fig.  2c). To  the  south  of  the  causeway,  zone  5  has  been  surveyed (Fig. 1). In this zone three profiles from northwest to southeast  direction have been done (Fig. 3a). 

Zone (6) has been applied along the causeway (Fig.1). Because of the  length  of  the  causeway,  the  profiles  have  done  on  different  stages. The  first stage  (Fig. 3a), four profiles (P5-P6, P14-P15) have been surveyed  from  east  to west  direct  along  the  causeway.  In  the  second  stage,  four  profiles (P29-P31) have been conducted from west to east direction. After  10 m from the end of the profiles of the second stage, the third stage has  begun with  its  four  profiles  (P32-P35)  from west  to  east  direction  (Fig. 3a)

To the north of the causeway, zone 7 begins with its profiles (Fig. 1). In this zone, four profiles (P1-P3) have been carried out from southeast to northwest  direction  (Fig.  3b).  For  zone  (8),  7 GPR  profiles  have  been conducted (Fig. 3c). In zone 9, three parallel profiles (P16-P18) have been applied from south to north direction (Fig. 3d) 


We have used some simple processing steps to visualize the radar profiles and to get rid of the interference of the embedded high frequency noise during the survey. The processing protocols used are : background removal, band pass frequency, gain enhancement and time to depth conversion.

For the conversion of time to depth we need the velocity of the wave propagation. It is well-known that the Pyramids plateau is formed entirely of dolomitic limestone of the Mokattam Formation (Salem, 1976). To determine the optimum velocity that can yield precise depth, we tried different means. After Landau-Boernstein, (1982); Davis and Annan, (1989); and Guéguen and Palciauskas, (1994) the relevant properties of some common near-surface earth materials have been studied to select the  optimum relative dielectric value. The  relative dielectric  constant of the  limestone varies between 4 and 8. Whereas, the dielectric constant of the  dolomite  has  a  range  between  6.8  and  7.8  (Lawrence  and  Goodman,  1997). These values could be higher given the presence of water and clay  contents. 

Furthermore, Fisher et al. (1992) described the following criterion for  finding  the  best  possible  velocity  for  a  migration  algorithm.  For  the  correct migration velocity, the migrated image will be well focused. If the  chosen  migration  velocity  is  too  low,  diffraction  hyperbolas  will  not  collapse completely but certain hyperbolic tails will remain in the image. 

A  too  large  velocity  results  in  diffraction  tails  that  extend  from  a  diffractor  towards  shallower  depths.  This  approach  of  testing  different  migration velocities mimics that employed when migration trials are used 
to  refine  velocity  structure  in  reflection  seismology  (Lawrence  and Goodman, 1997). We performed several migration attempts using a wide range of velocities. The effective medium calculations of the possible in-situ  velocity  showed  that  the  selected  velocities  are  reasonable  for  a porous  dolomitic  limestone  partially  saturated  with  water  is  ranged between 0.07 and 0.1 m/ns. 

The previously mentioned procedures have been applied to trace the range of dielectric constant and propagation velocity which could impact the  studied  areas. At  the  end,  the  propagation  velocity  estimate  for  the GPR profile was conducted over the Osiris well (Fig. 4). The depth of the well  has  been measured  and  time-depth  conversion  has  been  calculated using  different  velocities.  The  best  derived  velocity  value  is  0.08.  This velocity  has  been  used  to  convert  the  measured  GPR  profiles  in  the studied area.


A  number  of  interesting  features  have  been  delineated  through  out the plateau. These features could be of archaeological significance. Also, the common criteria of them are its fairly deep location. The velocity that used  to  turn  the  time-depth  conversion  has  yield  a  total  depth  of  28 m. The defined features are rest starting from 8 m depth. 

For zone (1), Figure (5) is a GPR profile measured from west to east. It shows a hyperbola at  17 m. depth. Also, some outside interference of direct wave (sharp straight-tilted lines) is easily perceived. In Figure (6), for  a GPR  profile  conducted  at  zone  (2)  another  hyperbolic  feature  has been  delineated.  To  the  southern  side  of  this  hyperbola  a  rather conductive zone of lateral extension about 25 m has been outlined. Both hyperbolas of zone (1) and (2) are described as of a cave-like appearance. For zone (3), we have summarized some features that detected in this area in figure (7). A continuous appearance of a moderately conductive zone has been identified along the parallel GPR profiles. This appearance could be attributed to a shaft filled with conductive materials like clays or sandy clays.  Two  regions  with  that  appearance  have  been  outlined  using  the time slices for the whole set of data as seen in figure (8). 

Figure (9) for GPR profile no. 7 at area (4) reveals some interesting features which have been assigned symbols (a, b and c). Feature (a) is of cave-like shape or together with feature (c) could signify a shaft and they both materialized due to the diffracted energy of the shaft edges. Where, feature (b) has a cave-like form. The 3 features became visible at depth 16m. 

For  area  (5),  no  remarkable  feature  is  noted.For  area  (6),  over  the causeway, only the Osiris shaft was perceptible. Figure (10) illustrates the shaft as it has been revealed on GPR profile P-38. No other features have 
been outlined through out the GPR profiles which have been carried out along  the  causeway.For  area  (7),  to  the  south  of  the  causeway,  GPR profile P-1  of  direction NE-SW  has  shown  a  conductive  zone  of  lateral 
extension about 11 m and at depth 8 m as noticeable in figure (11). 

Also, area (8) has not shown any occurrence for any feature. And last, figure  (12) belongs to GPR profile of  area (9) which displays the presence of cave-like feature at depth 20 m.

The  forms which  have  been  depicted  at  the  studied  area  are  either cave-like  or  shaft-like  features  (Fig.  13  and  14). The  cave-like  features could be ascribed to a tunnel section of at least 3 to 5 m width, and not 
filled  up  with  materials;  it  is  like  a  void  in  the  limestone  rock;  for example, see the feature which is marked on figures (5, 9 and 12). For the shaft, if it is just a cut in the limestone rocks (Fig. 14a), which has been 
filled  up  with  conductive  materials  (clays  or  sandy  clays),  this  filling material will  reflect conductive zoon on GPR profiles. For example, the features marked on fig. (11). While, if the shaft walls were enforced by 
blocks  of  limestone (Fig.  14b)  which  could  be  of  harder  properties (reduced  conductivity)  than  the  surrounding  rocks  and  dispersion  in  the radar energy due to the blocks edges could be caused. So, a possible two hyperbolas  at  both  sides  of  the  shaft  might  be  anticipated;  as  seen  in Fig.(9). 

Given  the  preceding  illustration  and  assertion, we  can  presume  the existence  of  a  momentous  diversity  of  archaeological  structures  at  the Pyramids plateau which remain, as yet, unexposed. These structures could 
be  a  linked  net  of  tunnels  and   shafts  that  may  well  lead  to  precious tombs

  •  In  general,  the  studied  areas  have  shown  high  potential  for  the presence of hidden archaeological targets. 
  • These targets range from tunnels to vertical shafts. 
  • Two  possible  shafts  were  defined  which  of  areal  extension  of about (20 m x 10 m) and (5m x5 m) respectively at zone no. (3).
  • The vertical extension of the targets has a range between 12 to 25m and it could be deeper in some parts.
  • The  targets  could  be  connected  together  by  tunnel(s)  (This possibilty requires more investigation). 
  • A more detailed study is recommended to achieve a more precise view of  the kind and shape of the targets. 

The  entire  area  needs  more  geophysical  work  from  different directions  to  strengthen  the  present  result. The  amount  of work  done  to date is not a sufficient basis on which to form a definitive judgment on the delineated phenomena. These phenomena raise a massive number of questions for the scientific researcher. We hope to answer these questions after further study. 


The  authors  express  their  gratitude  to  the  Supreme  Council  of Antiquities and to Dr. Zahi Hawwas who permitted the conduction of the present work in supportive surroundings

NRIAG Journal of Geophysics, Special Issue, PP. 1 ? 16, (2006) - [PDF][Archived]

Ground-penetrating radar exploration for ancient monuments at the Valley of Mummies -Kilo 6, Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

Fathy A. Shaabana, Abbas M. Abbas, Magdy A. Atyaa and Mahfouz A. Hafeza

National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, 11421 Helwan, Egypt

Received 6 October 2007; 
accepted 10 November 2008. 
Available online 30 November 2008.


A Valley of Mummies was discovered recently by an Egyptian team at Bahariya Oasis, located about 380 km west of the pyramids. Four tombs were excavated, and inside them were found one hundred and five mummies (105), many of them beautifully gilded. These mummies, many sumptuously decorated with religious scenes, are the very best Roman-Period mummies ever found in Egypt. These remains are around 2000 years old, but they are in remarkable condition. A Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) had proved successful in detecting the cavities in resistive soil in which the mummies were found.

The GPR survey conducted near the earlier-discovered tombs at Kilo-6 El-Bahariya to Farafra Oasis road is the focus of this paper. The GPR survey was conducted using the SIR-2000 attached to a 200 MHz monostatic antenna. The two areas to be surveyed were selected by the archaeologists in situ.

Area one was 40 m × 40 m and Area two was 30 m × 15 m. A grid pattern survey in one direction; with one-meter profile spacing was done to both areas. In addition, a focusing survey was undertaken over the entire Area one.

In addition, twenty long GPR profiles were conducted in an attempt to determine the outer, expected limits of the burial area. After the data acquisition, Reflex software was used for data processing and presentation. The final results of the radar survey: in the form of 2D radar records, time slices and 3D block diagrams; were used to guide the archaeologists during the excavation process. The excavation processes have been completed by the archaeologists, and many tombs and mummies were discovered. It is worthy to mention that, the excavations and location of tombs and cavities matched strongly with the GPR results.

Ground-penetrating radar exploration for ancient monuments at the Valley of Mummies

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